Bipolar disorder: how to recognize it and what are the treatments
Bipolar disorder is still little known today. Let's find out how to recognize it, what are the symptoms and possible treatments.
When we talk about bipolar disorder we mean a particular mood disorder which can manifest itself in a more or less evident way but which, in any case, requires the right treatment.
Once also known as manic depressive disorder, bipolar disorder causes sufferers to have several mood swings in a single day.
We therefore pass from moments of total excitement to others of depression. All with a symptomatology that varies in entity according to the type of problem from which one suffers.
There are several types of bipolar disorder. Let's find out, therefore, everything there is to know about this important pathology.
Bipolar Disorder: What it is and how many types there are
Bipolar disorder is a complex psychiatric disorder.
Often hereditary, it requires careful treatment without which it can become highly disabling.
Characterized by an alternation of manic episodes and depressive periods, it leads those who suffer from it not to understand that they have a problem and to act even in a dangerous way for their health. During manic periods, for example, there is an increase in self-esteem which can make one lose the perception of actual danger.
As already mentioned, although there is a change in mood at the base, bipolar disorder is divided into different types that have different symptoms and entities and which, therefore, lead to different therapeutic approaches.
Bipolar I disorder , for example, is characterized by even a single manic episode-like symptom.
Type II is defined as having at least one hypomanic episode and one episode of depression.
Then there is cyclothymic bipolar disorder characterized by mood instability with hypomanic and depressive symptoms.
It should also be remembered that in some cases a bipolar disorder can occur after taking drugs and therefore without the actual presence of the pathology.
Symptoms of bipolarity
Initially, recognizing bipolar disorder can be difficult due to the alternation of symptoms which therefore requires an accurate and prolonged history.
If we talk about the manic period, for example, this generally lasts from 7 to 10 days and brings symptoms such as difficulty sleeping, hyperactivity, increased self-esteem, exaggeratedly positive mood, logorrhoea, lack concentration, too much need to do and, in some cases, real psychotic symptoms.
The hypomanic period lasts 3 to 4 days and is usually more manageable and denotes irritability associated with some of the symptoms of the manic period but in a mild form and without the presence of psychotic ones. The depressive period is given by an alternation of delusions to a real depression which leads to the need to sleep, to an unregulated diet, to the loss of interest in the outside world, to the reduction of daily activities and to a continuous need for sleep.
Depression is one of the most dangerous phases for those suffering from bipolar disorder as it usually arrives in a very serious way and can also lead to extreme acts.
What are the treatments for bipolar disorder
In order to best treat bipolar disorder, it is first of all necessary to recognize it on the basis of the types already described. The cure is mostly centered on drugs that serve to stabilize mood and which are also associated with antidepressants . These will be alternated and changed according to the various phases, which is why the patient must be followed constantly and carefully by the doctor.
It is also useful to combine everything with psychotherapy sessions which prove indispensable both to better face the various phases and to live with the pathology. Also thanks to psychotherapy, those suffering from bipolar disorder can acquire useful skills such as learning to recognize the appearance of the various phases, taking medications constantly and working best on the symptoms to improve them over time.
If well followed, this pathology can be associated with a healthy and rewarding lifestyle. Provided, however, that the treatments are never interrupted and that one always relies on the advice of the expert.
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