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Vasculitis, what it is, what the symptoms are and how to treat it


Vasculitis is an inflammation of the blood vessel walls that can occur for a variety of reasons. Let's find out what are the main ones and how to cure them.

When we talk about vasculitis, we mean an autoimmune disease and which, therefore, damages some parts of the body. In this case, it is the blood vessel walls that are affected.
This can happen both for unknown reasons and as a result of pathological conditions.
Furthermore, depending on where it occurs, vasculitis can lead to other diseases.
Let's find out, therefore, everything that is important to know about this disease, its diagnosis and possible treatments.

Vasculitis: causes and classification

As already mentioned, the presence of the immune system must always be kept in mind in the development of vasculitis. In fact, this tends to become more active by mistaking healthy blood vessel cells for diseased ones and starting to accept them. Although there is still no certainty as to why this occurs, it is thought to be caused by allergic reactions, infections, tumors or problems with the immune system.


Summarizing everything, it can therefore be said that there are two forms of vasculitis.
Primary vasculitis, the cause of which is unknown, and secondary vasculitis which can arise under circumstances such as:

– Infections
– Allergic reactions to medicines or vaccines
– Autoimmune diseases such as lupus , rheumatoid arthritis or Sjogren's syndrome
– Tumors of blood cells

Once the presence of vasculitis has been ascertained, it is good to know that it has different classifications which depend on the cause that led to it (if known), on the localization which can be cutaneous, systemic or cerebral and on the extent of the problem. In fact, there are vasculitis of large blood vessels (affecting areas such as the aorta or temporal arteries), medium-sized vasculitis (arteries and veins) and that of small vessels (capillaries, arteries).

The presence of vasculitis can also weaken blood vessels, causing the risk of blood clots or other problems. For this reason it is very important to be able to recognize it in time in order to find a quick solution and able to alleviate the problems as much as possible.

What are the symptoms of vasculitis

The symptoms of vasculitis are variable and depend on the area where the problem occurs and, obviously, on its severity. In general, however, there are some that tend to occur almost always and which are:

– Fever
– Rashes
– Weakness
– Loss of appetite
– Articolar pains
Muscle pain
– Lethargy
– Ulcers
Canker sores
– Arthralgia

Depending on where it occurs and the size of the blood vessels involved, skin coloration or visible nodules may also appear.

In the case of medium or severe vasculitis, kidney problems, arthritis, hypertension, gangrene, urticaria, cough, shortness of breath, red eyes, sinusitis, lack of strength in the limbs, head, myocardial infarction and stroke.
Complications such as organ damage, recurring episodes, and aggravation of other existing illnesses may also arise.

How is vasculitis treated?

Generally vasculitis is recognized by external symptoms to which are added those required by the doctor ranging from blood tests to immunological tests, up to diagnostic imaging.

Once the diagnosis has been ascertained, the treatment will obviously depend on the situation and the possible presence of other diseases. Among the most common treatments are the administration of corticosteroids , the use of some drugs specifically designed for autoimmune diseases and surgery.
Obviously it will always be the doctor who will establish the right method of intervention which will also largely depend on the patient's condition.

In any case, asking for further information immediately on the onset of the first symptoms is certainly a good way to avoid complications and to catch the disease when it is still in its infancy.

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